Czernina: Polish Duck Blood Soup

Czernina, Czarnina z Krwi Kaczki

Czernina (pronounced: CHAR-nina) is one of the oldest Polish soups. It’s key ingredient is … blood. Mostly duck blood, but depending on the regional traditions, goose, hen, pig or rabbit vital fluids are used instead.

For the full list of ingredients & detailed instructions, please see the recipe card at the end of this post. But before you scroll, there’s important stuff to know below.

The soup’s name is spelled differently depending on a region (czarnina, czornina) and also known as czarna polewka, czarna zalewajka or juszyca.

In this post we’re going to get familiar with this somewhat controversial soup and will cook one too! If you’re still hesitant to try this one, fry another Polish soup, for example:

A Short History of Czernina

If you go through the oldest Polish cookbooks that survived the test of time, you’ll likely to notice an unusual dish – a soup called juszyca or czarnina/czernina. 

Its key ingredient? Blood, ideally duck or goose. Its distinctive sweet and sour taste is the hallmark of the traditional old-Polish cuisine.

As in many other dishes of that time, acidity of blood and vinegar was balanced with the sweetness of dried fruit. Czernina couldn’t do without a dash of exotic spices, which, together with a contrasting sweet & sour combination, created a perfect flavour for noble old-Polish tastebuds.

In 1682 Stanisław Czerniecki (chef of the Lubomirski princely family) described his methods of preparing czernina. His recipes collected in “Compendium Ferculorum” can be read till this day.

If such a noble family enjoyed this soup, it couldn’t have been just a commoner’s dinner, right?

Regional Dish Kept Alive in Literature

Duck blood soup is a well loved dish in the regions of Greater Poland and Pomerania. At the same time, it’s quite known (but not necessarily eaten) all-over Poland.

What propels one regional dish to fame while the others stay in relative obscurity? In case of czernina, if it isn’t familiar from our own home, then it’s from classic literature.

The soup was briefly mentioned in the national epic of Poland “Pan Tadeusz” (“Sir Thaddeus”) written by Adam Mickiewicz. And since this epic poem is a compulsory read in every Polish school, most of us got familiar with czernina.

Back in the day, over 200 years ago, if this soup was served to a young suitor trying to win a maiden’s hand, that could only mean one thing: a rejection.

This theme shows up in “Pan Tadeusz” here:

“The Pantler, my deceased dear Lord, the head
noble in the district owning land,
had a single daughter, and it was said
she was an angel courted by young devils.
Among them was a certain wild brawler,
Jacek Soplica, called in jest for his revels
and arrogance, the Senator-caller. (…)
He thought he might become the son-in-law
of my dear Lord, because he was received
so graciously; but when the servants saw
his true intent, how quickly they relieved
him of his urge to roost; quickly they served
the black soup, signifying refusal
.”

“Sir Thaddeus or the Last Foray in Lithuania: a History of the Nobility in the Years 1811 and 1812” by Adam Mickiewicz, translated by Leonard Kress

Do you need any special ingredients to make this Duck Blood Soup?

Yes, you’ll need duck blood – fresh or frozen.

🇵🇱 Here in Poland, you’ll simply need to ask around. Usually, the blood won’t be immediately available at the butcher’s, but sometimes it can be ordered-in for a later purchase. Buy more blood in season (late Autumn) and then freeze for future use.

🌍 Outside of Poland, buying duck blood (fresh or frozen) can be a challenge, unless you are lucky enough to live by a duck farm. 

I called up a few butchers in the US (in various states). A meat-market keeper from Detroit told me that due to legal changes by the Department of Agriculture, they’re no longer allowed to sell raw animal products of this kind.

I hear that it’s possible to get duck blood in some Polish Deli stores or Asian supermarkets / restaurants, you might want to give it a try.

For places that sell duck blood, scroll down to the bottom of this post (or click here). If you know a store that has it in stock, please let me know and I’ll update the list.

How should you serve this Duck Blood Soup?

Traditionally, duck blood soup is served with boiled potatoes, ribbon pasta or dumplings – ‘lane’ (‘poured’) or ‘kładzione’ (‘laid’ dumplings).

Garnish-wise, add some lightly precooked pear and/or plums. A healthy amount of chopped parsley will liven up the dish.

Can you cook this Duck Blood Soup another way?

No. While there are many regional recipes for Czernina, the core method remains the same.

What diets is this Czernina soup suitable for?

A vampire diet! Jokes aside: if you use a gluten-free flour and skip the pasta, this recipe will become gluten-free.

How long can you keep this Duck Blood Soup in the fridge?

Once you’ve served the soup, ideally you should eat it within 3 hours.

If you have any leftovers, allow them to cool. Make sure to refrigerate in a container with a lid.  You can keep leftovers of this Duck Blood Soup in the fridge for approximately 3 days.

Can I freeze this Czernina Soup?

Yes, Duck Blood Soup can be frozen. Just pour it into a container with a lid. Remember to label it with the contents and today’s date. Place in the freezer and consume within 3 months.

How do I reheat this Duck Blood Soup?

From chilled: You can reheat Czernina on the stove. Move the soup into a cooking pot and cook on a low-to-medium heat for approx. 10-15 minutes. Make sure the soup gets hot, but doesn’t boil.

From frozen: Remove from the freezer and move into the fridge overnight to thaw. Reheat on the stove for 10-15 minutes on a low-to-medium heat, making sure the soup doesn’t boil in the process.

Smacznego!

Czernina / Czarnina - Polish Duck Blood Soup served with noodles, dried fruit, pear and plum.
Czernina Polish Duck Blood Soup

Czernina: Polish Duck Blood Soup

Yield: 16
Prep Time: 20 minutes
Cook Time: 1 hour 10 minutes
Total Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Czernina is one of the oldest Polish soups, it's a regional speciality of Greater Poland and Pomerania. Czernina is brewed on duck stock, root vegetables, dried fruit and then enriched with duck blood.

You may stumble upon this soup under another name, such as: czarnina, czarna polewka, czarna zalewajka, mała czarna.

Ingredients

For the soup

  • 1 duck carcass (including wings and neck)
  • 3 medium (roughly 6 oz, 170 g) carrots
  • 2 parsley roots (roughly 5.5 oz, 160 g)
  • 1/2 celery root (roughly 5.5 oz, 160 g)
  • 1 leek
  • 1 onion (roughly 6oz, 170 g)
  • 5 bay leaves
  • 5 all-spice berries
  • 3 black peppercorns
  • 1 gallon of water (3.7 litres)
  • 1 cup (250 ml) duck blood, fresh or frozen
  • 3.5 oz (100 g) dried fruit: prunes, pears, apricots
  • ½ cup (50-60 g) frozen pitted cherries
  • 2-3 tbsp sour cream
  • 1 tbsp all-purpose flour
  • 1 tbsp wine vinegar
  • ½ tsp sugar
  • ½ tsp dried marjoram
  • Salt, to taste
  • Pepper, to taste

To serve

  • egg pasta noodles
  • springs of fresh marjoram

Instructions

  1. [The day before] If you’ve purchased frozen duck blood, move it from the freezer to your fridge to let it thaw.
  2. Prepare the vegetables, wash them and peel them. Peel the onion and char it directly over the burner grate, until fully charred.
  3. Place the meat into a large cooking pot (5 qt/5 litre), turn on the heat to medium. Bring to boil, then reduce the heat significantly, so that the stock only simmers.
  4. When a layer of scum appears, remove it with a spoon or a small strainer. 
  5. Add in the vegetables you’ve prepared, onion too. Then add the spices - 5 bay leaves, 5 all-spice berries, 3 black peppercorns and a teaspoon of salt. Cook for 1 hour on a low heat.
  6. As you wait, grab a smaller cooking pot and drop in the dried fruit. Cover with water and leave for 30 minutes to soak. Add cherries in and cook until soft. Strain and set aside.
  7. Let’s return to the large pot of stock. Remove meat and vegetables from the pot and strain the stock into a smaller pot. Add in the fruit. 
  8. Make sure that the duck blood is at room temperature. Add 1 tablespoon of vine vinegar and half a tablespoon of sugar.  Add one tablespoon of flour and 2-3 tablespoons of sour cream and mix together with a spoon, until well combined and the texture is smooth. 
  9. Start reheating the stock again. Slowly, gradually, pour in the blood mixture, stirring constantly. Make sure not to bring the soup to boil.
  10. Season the soup with half a teaspoon of dried marjoram and some ground pepper. Have a taste - if you feel it needs more salt, it’s a good moment to add more in.
  11. Serve with pasta or dumplings, dried fruit pieces and garnish with fresh herbs, such as fresh marjoram.

Notes

I found this recipe at Zakochane w Zupach blog, and changed it slightly to make it more accessible for everyone.

Nutrition Information:
Yield: 16 Serving Size: 1
Amount Per Serving: Calories: 112Total Fat: 4gSaturated Fat: 1gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 2gCholesterol: 23mgSodium: 70mgCarbohydrates: 13gFiber: 3gSugar: 6gProtein: 7g

FAQ and Troubleshooting

How does Duck Blood Soup taste?

Czernina tastes sweet and sour at the same time. Some refer to it as a “chocolate soup”, the colour and texture brings chocolate to mind.

Where to buy Duck Blood?

If you know a place that sells duck blood in your country, please let me know.

🇺🇸 USA

📍 Ohio

Maple Heights Catering (www | facebook)
17330 Broadway Ave, Maple Heights, OH 44137-3414

Where to try Duck Blood Soup?

Today, Duck Blood Soup is more of a regional delicacy rather than an every-day dish. And frankly, I understand why that’s the case. Hunting down duck blood can be a struggle, and then knowing how to cook it well – even more so.

When eating out, it’s difficult to find Czernina on a menu. Especially outside of the region and outside of the season. Keep in mind that Czernina is somewhat a seasonal dish, best times are during a season of late-August till mid-December.

Fortunately, there are places to enjoy it. You’ll find them mostly in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) and Pomerania (Kashubia and Kuyavia).

Here’s a list of places offering czernina (at the time of posting):

Greater Poland (Wielkopolska)

📍 Poznań & vicinity

In the “Best czernina competition” during the 2018 Good Taste Festival in Poznań, the following restaurants were selected as winners:

Salon z Ogrodem (www|facebook|tripadvisor
Limanowskiego 5/1, 60-743 Poznań

Marcelino – chleb i wino (facebook|tripadvisor)
Marcelińska 96A/206, 60-324 Poznań
Menu changes daily, check on facebook if czernina is available on that day.

More places serving czernina:

Bamberka (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
Stary Rynek 2, 61-772 Poznań

Hyćka (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
Rynek Śródecki 17, 61-126 Poznań

You’ll find more recommendations for Poznań here – the article is in Polish, but there is a map at the bottom of the page.

Pomerania

Kashubia

MÙLK – Chëcz Kaszëbskô (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Kaszubska 63, 80-297 Miszewko

Nordowi Mol (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
Celbowo 27 A, 84-100 Puck

Kaszubski Młyn (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Młyńska 11, Wierzchucino 84-113

Gospoda u Szadego (www| facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Kartuska 82, 83-330 Borkowo
Hala Selgros, ul. Wodnika 79, 80-299 Gdańsk

Kuyavia

📍 Bydgoszcz

Karczma Kujawska (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Konna 14, 85-687 Bydgoszcz

Karczma Rzym (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Grunwaldzka 309, 85-438 Bydgoszcz

“Pałacowa” in Pałac w Grochowiskach Szlacheckich (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
Grochowiska Szlacheckie 2, 88-420 Grochowiska Szlacheckie, gm. Rogowo

📍 Toruń

Karczma Spichrz (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Mostowa 1, 87-100 Toruń

Restauracja Ciżemka (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Piekary 18, 87-100 Toruń

Warmia-Mazuria

Karczma Warmińska (www|facebook|tripadvisor)
ul. Kościelna 1, 11-036 Gietrzwałd

Mazovia

📍 Warsaw & vicinity

Szynk Praski ( www | facebook | tripadvisor )
ul. Stalowa 37 lok. 29/30, 03-425 Warsaw

Food Festivals

📍 Lubraniec
The “Kuyavian Food Festival – Duck Blood Soup Day” is an annual culinary event organised by the municipality of Lubraniec.⁣ It’s 5th edition took place on 14th Sept 2019.

Kasia Kronenberger

Kasia Kronenberger is the founder of Polonist, where she celebrates Poland’s very best food.
She’s a self-taught home cook, who – through her own culinary attempts – wants to show you how to recreate Polish flavours at home, wherever that is.
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